Tapioca flour is an essential ingredient in gluten-free baking and a favorite among those following a vegan diet. Tapioca starch is starch extracted from the root of the cassava plant. Tapioca is starch extracted from cassava. The way to get this starch is by washing the cassava, pulverizing it into a soft gruel, and then pressing it to extract the liquid. When the liquid evaporates, the extra fine white powder that remains (which is pure starch) is known as tapioca starch.


The tapioca flour manufacturing process involves the following basic steps:

1. Selection and Washing of Cassava: Fresh cassava is well selected and then washed to remove dirt and adhering soil. Cassava is then peeled to remove the skin.

2. Grinding Cassava: Washed and peeled cassava is then ground into a coarse gruel using a grinding machine. This cassava pulp contains fiber and cassava starch.

3. Sedimentation: The cassava pulp is then left in the container for several hours so that the liquid part and the solid part are separated. The solid part that settles contains cassava starch, while the liquid part that floats contain water and a small amount of starch.

4. Separation: After the settling process, the floating liquid part is discarded, and the solid part containing cassava starch is transferred to another container.

5. Drying: Separated cassava starch is then further processed by drying. There are several drying methods that can be used, such as traditional sun drying or using modern dryers. This drying process aims to remove the water content from cassava starch so that it becomes flour.

6. Grinding and screening: After drying, the cassava starch is ground into tapioca flour using a grinding machine. Then, the tapioca flour is sifted to remove the coarse particles and get a fine powder.

7. Packaging: The tapioca flour that has been produced is packaged in appropriate packaging to maintain the quality and cleanliness of the product.


The process of making tapioca flour can vary quite a bit depending on the method and equipment used. However, the steps above provide an overview of how tapioca flour is produced from raw cassava to a ready-to-use finished product.


The following is information about the nutritional levels and benefits of tapioca flour:

Tapioca flour nutritional content (per 100 grams):

• Calories: 358

• Carbohydrates: 88 grams

• Fiber: 0.9 grams

• Protein: 0.19 grams

• Fat: 0.02 grams

• Vitamin C: 0 mg

• Iron: 0.35 mg

• Calcium: 16 mg

• Potassium: 13 mg

• Magnesium: 10 mg


Benefits of tapioca flour:

1. Gluten-free: Tapioca flour does not contain gluten, so it is suitable for people who have gluten intolerance or celiac disease.

2. Source of carbohydrates: Tapioca flour is a good source of carbohydrates, providing the energy needed by the body.

3. Easy to digest: Tapioca flour has a smooth texture and is easily digested by the body, so it is suitable for people who have digestive problems or food sensitivities.

4. Alternative to wheat flour: Tapioca flour can be used as a substitute for wheat flour in a variety of recipes, making it useful for those who avoid gluten or are allergic to wheat.

5. Adds softness and elasticity to dough: When used in making bread, cakes or other foods, tapioca flour can give dough a softer and more elastic texture.

6. Food thickener: Tapioca starch is often used as a thickener in foods, such as soups, sauces, or pies. This helps give food the desired thickness and texture.


It is important to know that tapioca flour has a nutritional value which is mainly dominated by carbohydrates, but low in fiber and protein. Therefore, it is important to look for other sources of nutrition to meet the body's daily needs. The specifications of the best tapioca flour may vary depending on the needs and preferences of the user. However, there are several factors that can be used as a reference in choosing good quality tapioca flour.


Here are some specifications that are generally considered as indicators of tapioca flour quality:

1. Amylose content: Amylose is one of the main components in tapioca starch. Tapioca flour with a higher amylose content tends to give a more supple and elastic texture to the final product. Therefore, choose tapioca flour with amylose content that suits your needs.

2. Particle size: The particle size of tapioca flour can affect the binding power and thickness of the resulting product. Tapioca flour with a finer particle size can produce products with a finer texture as well. Check the particle size specifications listed on the product packaging to ensure compliance with your needs.

3. Color: Good quality tapioca flour generally has a bright white or yellowish color. Consistent color and not too pale or dark can be an indicator of the quality of tapioca flour.

4. Purity: Make sure the tapioca flour you choose is free from contamination and unwanted additives. Read product labels carefully to ensure that tapioca starch does not contain additives such as coloring, preservatives, or other fillers.

5. Certification: Tapioca flour that has been tested and meets certain quality standards usually has certifications, such as ISO certification or organic certification. This certification can be an additional indicator that tapioca flour is produced with good quality standards.


Apart from the specifications above, it is also important to buy tapioca flour from a manufacturer or brand that is trusted and has a good reputation. This can help ensure that you get tapioca flour that is of high quality and is safe for use in cooking or food production.


Tapioca starch is not widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. However, there are some applications in the pharmaceutical-related food industry. Following are some of the uses of tapioca starch in the pharmaceutical-related food industry:

1. Capsules: Tapioca starch can be used as a filling material in the production of empty capsules. Tapioca flour serves as an auxiliary ingredient in its formation and filling.

2. Tablets: In the pharmaceutical industry, tapioca starch can be used as a binder in the manufacture of tablets. Tapioca starch helps maintain the shape and integrity of the tablets while they are being manufactured.

3. Tablet coating: Tapioca starch can also be used as a coating material for tablets, which helps protect the active ingredients in tablets from environmental influences or prolongs drug release within a certain time system.

4. Suspension thickener: Tapioca starch can be used as a thickener in drug suspensions. This helps keep drug particles evenly dispersed in suspension and prevents phase separation.

5. Other uses: Tapioca starch can also be used as a binder, thickener, or filler in various other pharmaceutical products, such as topicals or ointments.

It is important to note that the use of tapioca starch in the pharmaceutical industry must meet the quality and safety standards set by the regulatory authorities that apply in each country. In addition, the use and dosage of tapioca starch in pharmaceutical products must be based on appropriate research, formulation and approval.


Tapioca flour or cassava flour is generally used in the food industry as a thickener or basic ingredient in the manufacture of dough for bread, cakes, and other foods. However, in the paper industry, tapioca starch also has several uses. Here are some uses of tapioca starch in the paper industry:

1. Binder: Tapioca starch can be used as a binder in paper making. When mixing the pulp fibers with water, the tapioca starch can stick to the fibers and help bind them together. This helps increase the strength of the paper and prevents the fibers from loosening during processing.

2. Strengthener: Tapioca starch can be used as a reinforcement in paper. When added to the pulp fiber mixture, tapioca starch forms a strong bond between the fibers, giving the resulting paper additional strength.

3. Surface smoothing: Tapioca flour can also play a role in providing smoothness to the paper surface. When processed, tapioca starch forms a thin film on the surface of the paper that helps fill and even out the texture of the paper, giving it a smoother finish and more suitable for printing.

4. Viscosity controller: Tapioca starch can be used as a viscosity controlling agent in paper making process. By adjusting the viscosity of the solution during the paper processing stage, tapioca starch helps to optimize the control of the flow and distribution of pulp fibers, thereby affecting the quality and characteristics of the paper produced.

5. Alternative additives: Tapioca flour can also be used as an alternative additive in making environmentally friendly paper. Compared to some chemicals used in the paper industry, tapioca starch is a natural ingredient that can be decomposed naturally and has a lower environmental impact. Although tapioca starch has several uses in the paper industry, it should be noted that its applications may be limited and may vary depending on the type of paper being produced and the specific requirements of the paper mill.

Tapioca Starch  :

* Textile industry  

            Threads are treated with the tapioca flour before weaving.  In printing onto the textile, the tapioca flour helps ensure smooth and continuous prints. Modified starch has proven to be better than ordinary tapioca flour in the textile factories.  Some local flour mills now produce modified starch to meet rising demand.

* Paper industry  

           Plup is derived from pine trees, bamboo and eucalyptus (gum) trees.  In order to smooth out pulp into paper, it has to be coated with flour (or starch).  The glue from tapioca starch increases the quality of the paper also.

* Particle board industry  

           The glue used in  cementing wood chips is made partly from tapioca flour, with the composition of about 50%.  The flour itself has the adhesive property, and is cheaper than other materials.

* Gumming industry   

           The tapioca flour can be converted into glue, by heating or mixing with certain chemical substances.  It can be used in producing letter envelopes, stickers, gummed paper and gummed tapes.

* Food and beverages 

           The tapioca flour is a source of carbohydrate and has important properties in food industry.  It acts as a thickener, stabilizer, binder and filler.  It can be used in canned food, noodles, drinks, ice cream, canned fruits, yoghurt, sausages, sauces and baking soda.

* Degradable material 

           The tapioca floour can be converted into plastics by mixing with degradable polymer.

* Sweetener industry  

          The tapioca flour can also be converted into sugar such as glucose, fructose and dextrose.  It can be substituted for sucrose  in canned fruits and jams.

* Acetic acid industry  

           It can be used in beverage industry such as carbonated drinks, fruit juices and pharmaceutical industry.

* Food flavouring  

           Ii is the major ingredient in making MSG for food flavouring.

* Pharmaceuticals  

           It is used in making capsules and tablets.


Tapioca Chips and Pellets  :

* Animal feed   

           Information can be found in   Tapioca is an important ingredient in animal feed for cattle, swine and poultry

* Ethanol   

           Tapioca can be converted into ethanol which, when mixed with gasoline, gives rise to gasohol for the motor industry.

* Alcohol  

          Tapioca can be processed into alcohol for the brewery and also for use as an antiseptic.